Factcheck: How much energy does the world get from renewables?

  • 06 Oct 2015, 14:05
  • Simon Evans
Solar panels against the deep blue sky

Solar panels | Shutterstock

The world cannot avoid dangerous climate change without moving to "near zero emissions" before the end of the century, according to the  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Zero-carbon sources of energy will be key to this transition and in the power sector they are already being added more quickly than fossil fuels.

So just how much energy does the world get from renewables? Carbon Brief has two charts to show where we are today, and how far we've come over the past half century.

Fossil free

Last week,  Mark Carney, governor of the Bank of England,  warned that fossil fuel assets could become unburnable, stranded assets that no longer have value -- with broad implications for financial stability. His comments continue to  divide opinion.

Yet if the world is to successfully avoid dangerous warming, fossil fuels must ultimately be either replaced by  zero-carbon alternatives or used with  carbon capture and storage.

Not  everyone believes this to be a plausible future. In an article in  the Telegraph on 1 October, Jeremy Warner wrote:

"Thirty years of extraordinarily costly research and development has resulted in a renewables industry that today accounts for a stunning - wait for it - 1 per cent of global energy supply."

In the  Sunday Times on 4 October, Rod Liddle wrote:

"Carney, with wind turbine nailed to his forehead, has decided he doesn't like hydrocarbons. Coal, gas and oil. He thinks we should probably leave one third of the world's reserves of hydrocarbons right there where they are, in the ground. Leave it where it is and invest in what are euphemistically called renewables, which contribute 1% of the world's energy needs. Right-ho, Mark - that's the entire basis of the western economic system well and truly buggered, then."

Renewable share

The two columnists are scathing of renewables, giving identical figures for the renewable share of world energy. Are they right? In short, no.

Read more

Daily Briefing | Coal-fired power stations ‘to close’

  • 06 Oct 2015, 09:00
  • Carbon Brief Staff
Coal fired power station with cooling towers releasing steam into atmosphere

Coal power station | Shutterstock

*Get the daily briefing in your inbox at 9AM - click here to subscribe**

Factcheck: Aerosols research misinterpreted to 'alarming extent', says study author 
On Friday the Express claimed that the discovery of a new "natural coolant" by scientists has thrown "previous estimates of rising temperatures into doubt" - following in the footsteps of similar articles elsewhere. But a co-author of the study tells Carbon Brief the researchers "completely disagree" with the way their study has been reported, and that these articles are a "misuse of our research". Carbon Brief

Climate and energy news

Coal-fired power stations 'to close' 
Britain will shut down all its coal-fired power stations by 2023, under plans being drawn up by ministers before a United Nations climate change conference in Paris next month, the Times reports. It is understood that Amber Rudd, the energy secretary, could announce the plan before the conference begins on November 30. Under the proposals, Britain's ten coal-fired power stations, the biggest supplier of electricity for decades, would be forced to convert to alternative fuels, fit carbon capture and storage equipment, or shut. Coal - the most polluting fossil fuel in terms of carbon emissions - generated about 30% of electricity in the UK last year. The plan "is likely to add to fears" that new renewables will not come on to the system quickly enough to replace the lost coal-fired generation capacity, the Times writes. "While fossil fuels have a role to play in meeting our energy ­demands, evidence shows that coal as a percentage of total generation has ­fallen from 40 per cent in 2012 to 29 per cent in 2014", a DECC spokesperson said. The Times 

UN releases 20-page negotiating text for climate deal 
The UN has produced a slimmed-down negotiating text for the global climate pact due to be signed in Paris this December - less than a quarter the length of the last version, published in July. The document clarifies which elements will be legally binding and which go into a 'decision document' that can evolve over time. The legally-binding portion will include a long-term global goal for peaking or phasing out greenhouse gas emissions. The draft has no official status - the only way such pre-negotiation negotiations can take place, notes Andy Revkin in the New York Times. The problem is that the draft remains "riddled" with square brackets, he writes. The Guardian also carries the story. Climate Home 

Leaders 'will not negotiate' at Paris climate talks 
Summit organisers of the Paris climate conference want to reverse the way such talks have been held in past years by summoning world leaders at the start, and then leave the nitty gritty of forging a deal to their representatives. By doing so they hope to avoid a repeat of the Copenhagen summit five years ago - widely regarded as a failure after "fraught last-minute, closed-door negotiations". "The French idea is to have heads of state come at the beginning to make statements - they will not negotiate, you won't have them in closed doors," an EU source told Politico. Politico 

China is working to reach its emissions peak before 2030 deadline, analyst says 
China may aim for an earlier greenhouse gas emissions peak before its 2030 deadline, according to Qi Ye, director of the Brookings-Tsinghua Center for Public Policy in Beijing. "China hopes to peak as early as possible because it understands it's in the national interest and to the benefit of the people in terms of health considerations", he told the Guardian Australia. This will put a greater onus on Australia to work with its key trading partner on renewable energy rather than fossil fuels.  Guardian 

BP finalises $20.8bn Deepwater Horizon settlement 
BP will pay a higher than expected $20.8bn to settle civil claims with US federal and state authorities over the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster, an oil spill and explosion that killed 11 workers. The deal announced on Monday is the largest ever reached by the Department of Justice with a single entity. The Telegraph also has the story. Financial Times 

Renewables could supply nearly a quarter of Africa's energy by 2030, says report 
Almost a quarter of Africa's energy needs could feasibly be supplied by renewables within the next 15 years, according to a report by IRENA released yesterday. Hydropower, wind, solar power, and modern biomass systems for cooking, could all play a major role in the continent's energy mix. With 50% of all energy use in Africa today coming from traditional biomass, around half of the projected increase in renewable energy capacity would come from modern biomass-based heat applications. BusinessGreen 

Read more

Factcheck: Aerosols research misinterpreted to 'alarming extent’, says study author

  • 05 Oct 2015, 16:45
  • Robert McSweeney
Evening sun behind clouds above the sea, Hermaness, Unst, Shetland Islands

© Matthias Graben/Corbis

In its online edition on Friday, the  Express claimed that the discovery of a new "natural coolant" by scientists has thrown "previous estimates of rising temperatures into doubt".

The story followed in the footsteps of similar articles on the  Register and  Breitbart, two websites which have a history of publishing climate sceptic articles. The Register said the new research meant "there isn't as much urgency about the matter [climate change] as had been thought". While a Breibart article by James Delingpole claimed it presents "further proof" that "the reason that all that predicted 'global warming' has failed to materialise is that it has been countered by the planet's natural cooling effects."

The Express and Breitbart quoted Benny Peiser, director of the Global Warming Policy Foundation, a climate sceptic lobby group, as saying: "Here is more evidence...that climate models...should never have been trusted in the first place."

But a co-author of the study tells Carbon Brief the researchers "completely disagree" with the way their study has been reported, and that these articles are a "misuse of our research".

Theexpress Isoprene

The Express, online edition, Friday 2 October.


The new study, published last week in the journal Environmental Science & Technology, concerns natural emissions of a compound called "isoprene". Despite sounding like a material a keen cyclist would wear, isoprene is actually a gas that helps aerosols form in our atmosphere.

Aerosols are tiny liquid or solid particles in the air. They have a direct effect on temperature by scattering sunlight, and an indirect effect by stimulating clouds to form, affecting how much sunlight reaches the Earth's surface. Overall, they generally cool the Earth's surface, counteracting - but not offsetting - the warming impact of rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Aerosols have natural sources, such as  volcanic emissions and  plant vapours, and manmade sources, such as car exhausts, factories and power plants.

Isoprene isn't an aerosol in its own right, but combines with other chemicals in the atmosphere,  such as oxygen, to create them. These particles are big enough for water vapour to condense onto, allowing clouds to form.

Scientists know that isoprene is produced by plants and trees on land and by plankton in the oceans. But the new study finds that it is also produced by the interaction of sunlight with chemicals in the top tenth of a millimetre of the ocean surface.

Read more

Tags |

Daily Briefing | Lord Adonis to resign Labour whip and chair George Osborne's infrastructure body

  • 05 Oct 2015, 09:00
  • Carbon Brief Staff
Lord Adonis, Labour Peer attends the Arup-Cicero Infrastructure breakfast debate, at the offices of Arup, London.

Lord Adonis | Michael Walter/Troika

*Get the daily briefing in your inbox at 9AM - click here to subscribe**

Analysis: India's climate pledge suggests significant emissions growth up to 2030 
India's greenhouse gas emissions in 2030 would climb by around 90% compared to current levels, according to Carbon Brief analysis of its climate pledge to the UN. However, it would remain far below its peers on a per capita basis. And, at $2.5tn over the next 15 years, India's pledge has a significantly higher price tag than other INDCs.  Carbon Brief

Climate and energy news

Lord Adonis to resign Labour whip and chair George Osborne's infrastructure body 
In a story leading many of the UK's newspapers, one of Labour's pre-eminent thinkers is to resign his party's whip in the House of Lords after being recruited by George Osborne to head a newly created National Infrastructure Commission. Andrew Adonis, Tony Blair's former policy chief, will sit as a cross-bench peer to allow him to chair the new statutory body that will advise the government on new infrastructure projects. These will cover roads and rail, including the east-west HS3 rail line, the new north-south Crossrail 2 line linking Surrey and Hertfordshire, and energy projects such as the new generation of nuclear power stations.  Reuters says the International Monetary Fund has encouraged Britain to spend more on infrastructure, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development says British government capital spending ranked 18th out of 24 developed countries in 2013.  The Guardian 

India's pledge clears a significant hurdle towards a climate deal in Paris 
India's climate pledge to the UN has received lots of media attention over the past few days. The Guardian notes that "with India's plan for curbing carbon emissions now in, most of the major developing economies have responded to the UN's requests for the commitments on climate change that will form the keystone of an agreement to be signed in Paris this December". The  FT says that "New Delhi's submission represents a milestone for international climate negotiations stretching back 20 years that have failed to stem rising carbon emissions...New Delhi's 38-page submission to the UN was the last from any big economy." The  BBC says that "India's contribution, which promised to reduce the carbon intensity of their emissions but didn't commit to peaking their CO2, drew praise from around the world...But many environmentalists were critical, saying the plan would see a "phenomenal increase" in the use of coal...The plan says that India's transition will cost $2.5 trillion, a "scary number" according to one observer. It is unclear how much of this money will come from India's own resources and how much from the international community and investment." The story is also covered by  InsideClimateNews,Climate Home,  AP,  Time,  Nature and  Scientific American.  The Guardian 

Nuclear power plants in 'culture of denial' over hacking risk 
The frontpage of the FT carries a story about a new Chatham House report which argues that a "focus on safety and high physical security means that many nuclear facilities are blind to the risks of cyber attacks". "Cyber security is still new to many in the nuclear industry," said Caroline Baylon, the report's author. "They are really good at safety and, after 9/11, they've got really good at physical security. But they have barely grappled with cyber." The  BBC also has the story.  Financial Times 

Six experts vie for top U.N. climate science job 
Reuters previews this week's vote for the new chair of the IPCC, the UN's climate science body. "The outcome of the vote is hard to predict, especially after Sierra Leone's Ogunlade Davidson, a former IPCC vice-chair, joined the race in recent weeks, scientists and officials said. He could be well placed, if developing countries back him in the one-nation, one-vote election. 'He's thrown a wild card into the race,' one scientist said, asking not to be named because of the sensitivity of the vote." Last week,Carbon Brief published a comprehensive summary of the candidates' views.  Reuters 

Read more

Analysis: India's climate pledge suggests significant emissions growth up to 2030

  • 02 Oct 2015, 17:40
  • Simon Evans and Sophie Yeo
Taj Mahal on a bright and clear day

Taj Mahal | Shutterstock

India's greenhouse gas emissions in 2030 would climb by around 90% compared to current levels, according to Carbon Brief analysis of its climate pledge to the UN.

Its  intended nationally determined contribution (INDC) promises a 33-35% reduction in emissions intensity by 2030, compared to 2005 levels.  This could see India eclipse the EU and US in terms of total emissions in 2030. However, it would remain far below its peers on a per capita basis.

India's INDC also pledges to nearly triple its renewable energy capacity by 2022 and to raise the share of zero-carbon electricity generating capacity to 40% of the total by 2030.

At $2.5tn over the next 15 years, India's pledge has a significantly higher  price tag than other INDCs. Carbon Brief dives into the numbers and the politics around India's INDC.

Rising emissions

India's population and economy are  growing rapidly, yet hundreds of millions still live in poverty without access to electricity. So India has been fiercely protective of its right to prioritise economic development.

As a result, its INDC in framed in terms of emissions intensity -- the amount of greenhouse gases emitted per unit of GDP. While India's pledge promises to cut its emissions intensity in 2030 to a third below 2005 levels, its growing economy means actual emissions will still increase.

Read more

Daily Briefing | Will cut greenhouse gas emissions intensity, move to non-fossil fuels by 2030, India tells UNFCCC

  • 02 Oct 2015, 09:00
  • Carbon Brief Staff
India's flag

India's flag | Wikimedia

*Get the daily briefing in your inbox at 9AM - click here to subscribe**

IPCC chair election: how the views of the candidates compare 
Next week, the election will take place to choose the new chair of the IPCC. Over recent months, Carbon Brief has been interviewing all the candidates. Here, we provide a gridded summary of the key points they made.  Carbon Brief

IEA scales back UK renewables forecast, citing policy uncertainty 
A new report by the International Energy Agency (IEA) says the future for UK renewables is less optimistic than it looked a year ago, in part because of uncertainty over government policy following the general election in May.  Carbon Brief 

Paris 2015 Tracking country climate pledges - updates include Botswana and Honduras 
The deadline for INDC submissions passed yesterday, but the UNFCCC received a flood of last-minute entries. Catch-up on of what all the latest countries said in their submissions with our popular tracker.  Carbon Brief

Climate and energy news

Will cut greenhouse gas emissions intensity, move to non-fossil fuels by 2030, India tells UNFCCC 
One day after the formal deadline, India has submitted its much-anticipated post-2020 climate pledge - or INDC - to the UNFCCC, reports the Indian Express. "India has said it will ensure that its greenhouse gas emissions from one unit of GDP in 2030 is at least one third lesser than what it used to be in 2005. It has also said that it intends to produce about 40 per cent of its electricity in 2030 from "non-fossil fuel based sources" like solar, wind or hydropower." The  Times of India notes that "India's INDC do not bind it to any sector specific mitigation obligation or action, including in agriculture sector". The  New York Times says: "Under the plan, India does not commit to an absolute reduction in carbon emissions levels, unlike other major polluting economies, including those of the United States, China, the European Union and Brazil. India's emissions would continue to rise, but at a slower pace than business as usual."Reuters says that the INDC includes a section that suggest preliminary estimate suggests that "at least $2.5 trillion will be required for meeting India's climate change actions between now and 2030". TheGuardian,  EnergyDesk and  Carbon Pulse also carry the story.  Indian Express 

Climate plans by 140 nations mark progress, but not enough: experts 
Plans submitted by 140 nations to limit their greenhouse gases would go some way towards tackling climate change, but not enough to prevent the planet from warming by well over 2C compared to pre-industrial times, experts say. A Climate Action Tracker (CAT) by four European research groups projected the plans, if implemented, would limit average temperature rises to 2.7C above pre-industrial times by 2100, down from 3.1C estimated last December. "We're below three degrees for the first time," Bill Hare of Climate Analytics, which is part of CAT, told Reuters. "We're obviously far from where we need to be, but this is a signal that the process can work." He said the main contributor was Beijing's plan, issued in June, to get emissions from burning coal, oil and natural gas to peak by around 2030.Climate Home and  Associated Press also carry the story.  Reuters 

Industry warns government solar subsidy cuts put 27,000 jobs at risk 
Up to 27,000 people who make a living from the UK's burgeoning solar power industry could lose their jobs as a result of the government's aggressive cuts to the popular feed-in tariff subsidy scheme, a new industry-backed analysis has claimed. The Solar Trade Association commissioned TBR Economic Research to investigate how many people are employed directly by the solar industry, in a bid to understand the potential impact on jobs of the government's controversial feed-in tariff review.  BusinessGreen 

Netherlands enters appeal against climate ruling 
The Dutch government has appealed against a court order to target deeper greenhouse gas emission cuts. In July, district judges ruled the Netherlands must reduce emissions at least 25% from 1990 levels by 2020. Existing policies are set to yield 17%. It was a groundbreaking victory for campaign group Urgenda, which brought the case backed by almost 900 citizens. But after a parliamentary debate last week, the government confirmed plans to challenge the verdict in the appeals court. Environment minister Wilma Mansveld questioned the judge's interpretation of the state's "duty of care" towards citizens - a crucial factor in the case. That could have implications for other policy areas, she said.  Climate Home 

Power stations' wasted energy 'costing consumers £9.5bn a year' 
Wasted energy at electricity power stations is adding hundreds of pounds to the cost of household bills, a report warns. More than half of the energy generated at electricity plants is lost before it gets to households because massive amounts of heat is allowed to escape uncaptured. The waste adds £9.5bn a year to energy bills and equals the power generated by 37 nuclear power stations or wind turbines covering two fifths of Scotland, says the report, which was signed by EEF, the manufacturers organisation, and Greenpeace.  The Times 

Read more

IEA scales back UK renewables forecast, citing policy uncertainty

  • 02 Oct 2015, 06:00
  • Simon Evans
Wind turbines at Little Cheyne Court

Wind turbines | Oast House Archives

The future for UK renewables is less optimistic than it looked a year ago, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA).

The amount of renewable capacity added in the UK will fall by half between 2015 and 2016, says the IEA's Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2015, in part because of uncertainty over government policy following the election in May.

Globally, the IEA expects renewables to be the single largest source of new electricity generating capacity, accounting for nearly two-thirds of all additions to 2020. However, the UK policy environment is not alone in leaving question marks over support for renewables, the IEA warns.

Carbon Brief has a short summary of the report.

UK uncertainty

Since the UK's general election in May, a series of renewable energy policies have been  rolled back or put  under review. "Policy uncertainties have emerged," the IEA says, citing changes to support for onshore wind, solar and other renewables.

Compared to its 2014 outlook, the IEA says its UK forecast for renewables is "less optimistic...with a dip in 2016 due to slower expansion of onshore wind and solar". This dip will see growth rates fall by more than half, from around 4 gigawatts (GW) added in 2015 to below 2GW in 2016.

Though it expects growth rates to recover, the IEA does not expect annual additions to return to pre-election levels (chart, below).

Renewal -capacity

Past and projected renewable generating capacity additions in the UK between 2013 and 2020. Source: IEA Medium Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2015.


Read more

IPCC chair election: how the views of the candidates compare

  • 01 Oct 2015, 10:45
  • Roz Pidcock & Robert McSweeney
IPCC Chair grid

IPCC Chair grid | Carbon Brief

On 5 October, governments from around the world will vote for the next chair of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Over recent months, Carbon Brief has been interviewing the candidates on their vision for the IPCC. We have interviewed five to date, with a sixth candidate emerging in the past few days. We've now created a grid of their responses so you can compare where they stand on issues such as the scope of the next assessment report, linkages between working groups, and how the IPCC should communicate its findings.

The candidates

The IPCC is an international organisation created to evaluate and synthesise climate change science. It was founded in 1988 by the United Nations (UN) as a project of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP).

The winner of Tuesday's election will become the fourth person to lead the IPCC, following Bert BolinBob Watson and the outgoing chair, Rajendra Pachauri. Pachauri himself was elected in 2002 and then  re-elected unopposed in 2008. He  stepped down in February and vice-chair Ismail El Gizouli has been the acting chair.

There are currently six candidates, though last-minute candidates may be nominated before the vote goes ahead next week - even from the floor during the meeting itself:

Carbon Brief has interviewed five of the candidates, quizzing them on climate science and the key issues for the future of the IPCC. Ogunlade Davidson was only nominated last week, so we haven't yet been able to interview him as well.

We've created a grid of responses from the five candidates - in the order in which we interviewed them - below.

Ipcc -grid

The vote

Each member state of the IPCC has  one vote. For the election to be valid, representatives from at least 98 of the 195 states must be physically present to cast their vote.

One candidate must have at least 50% of the votes to win. If they don't have a majority, the two candidates with the most votes go through to a second ballot. In the unlikely event that they get exactly the same number of votes, member states are asked to vote for a third time. If the candidates are still equal after the third ballot, the winner will be elected by drawing lots.

Read more

Daily Briefing | Record El Niño set to cause hunger for 10 million poorest, Oxfam warns

  • 01 Oct 2015, 09:00
  • Carbon Brief Staff
Unidentified volunteers hand out food to pilgrims in Ethiopia

Lalibela, Ethiopia | Shutterstock

*Get the daily briefing in your inbox at 9AM - click here to subscribe**

Paris 2015 Tracking country climate pledges: flurry of submissions 
With over 30 new UN climate pledges coming in  this week, we're doing our best to keep up with tracking the targets and the requests for  finance. Recent additions include Turkey, Ukraine and Burundi - and there are still more to come.  Carbon Brief

Climate and energy news

Record El Niño set to cause hunger for 10 million poorest, Oxfam warns 
At least 10 million of the world's poorest people are set to go hungry this year because of failing crops caused by one of the strongest El Niño events on record, Oxfam warns. In a report, called Entering Uncharted Waters, the charity says the El Niño will rival that of 1998, and several countries are already facing a "major emergency", such as Ethiopia, where 4.5 million are in need of food aid because of a prolonged scarcity of rain this year.  Reuters also covers the story.  The Guardian 

No long-term future in tar sands, says Alberta's premier 
The leader of Canada's biggest oil-producing province says she sees no long-term future in fossil fuels, predicting Alberta would move beyond fossil fuels within a century. In an early reveal of her forthcoming new energy policy, Alberta's Rachel Notley said she would fight climate change by cleaning up the tar sands, shutting down coal-fired power plants, and converting to wind and solar power. The move is likely to put her on a collision course with Canada's conservative prime minister, Stephen Harper, the Guardian says.  The Guardian 

European and African countries launch plan to protect tropical rainforest in the Congo 
Six African nations have agreed with donors including the UK on a plan to protect the tropical forests of the Congo basin, the second biggest in the world after the Amazon's, to help ease poverty and combat climate change. Norway, the first donor to announce a pledge for the project, said it would give up to £31 million a year from 2016 to 2020. The project aims to slow illegal logging and burning of forests in Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.  Climate Home also has the story.   Reuters via The Telegraph 

World's energy systems at risk from global warming, say leading firms 
Energy infrastructure around the world is at risk from more extreme weather as a result of climate change, a group of prominent energy companies has warned. Energy systems, such as fossil fuel power stations, distribution grids, and power networks are all at risk from effects such as flooding, severe storms and sea level rises, says a new report from the World Energy Council (WEC). Christoph Frei, secretary-general of the WEC, warned that current estimates for adapting modern energy systems to extreme weather "do not fully account for the additional financing required to accommodate these new emerging risks."   The Guardian 

Many natural World Heritage sites threatened by oil, mining - report 
Almost a third of natural World Heritage sites are threatened by mining and oil exploration, and companies and investors face reputational and legal risks by backing such activities, reports Reuters. As many as 70 out of the 229 sites are at risk from extractive industries, the research from the WWF and asset managers Aviva Investors and Investec. This includes most of Africa's 41 natural heritage sites, designated by UNESCO as areas that have outstanding natural beauty or have ecological significance.  Reuters 

Italian firm Eni poised to begin Arctic oil quest as Shell quits Alaska 
Italian oil giant Eni will press ahead with oil production in the Arctic by the end of the year, undeterred by Shell's decision to abandon its search for Arctic oil. Eni is making final preparations to a £3.6bn project in the Norwegian Arctic, which would become the world's northernmost offshore oil field to come on stream. The project hopes to pump 100,000 barrels of oil per day from reserves believed to hold around 175m barrels of oil and 8bn cubic metres of gas. A spokesman for Eni told the Guardian that work at Goliat is at its "final stage". The project's 64,000-tonne floating platform is already in place and its wells have been drilled, ready for imminent production, a spokesman said.  The Guardian 

Read more

Paris 2015: Tracking country climate pledges

  • 30 Sep 2015, 13:45
  • Carbon Brief Staff

Updated 5 October.

Carbon Brief is maintaining a separate tracker of requests for   climate finance.

Countries around the world have been submitting their pledges to the UN, setting out how far they intend to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.

These promises, known as "intended nationally determined contributions", or INDCs, will determine the success of the deal that the UN hopes to sign off in Paris in December this year.

Carbon Brief is summarising the pledges made by each country. We'll update this post as each INDC comes in.

We've also published separate, in-depth articles on the pledges made by  the EU the US Russia Canada China Brazil Indonesia and  India

To find out exactly what an INDC is and why it matters, read our   INDC explainer.

An informal deadline of 1 October marked the cut-off to be included in an INDC summary from the UN. Some 148 parties made the cut. Another 48 countries responsible for 10% of the world's emissions have yet to submit their INDC.

Click to enlarge:


Who has pledged an INDC so far, and what percentage of the world's emissions are covered. Credit: Rosamund Pearce, Carbon Brief, based on EU data

Read more