Scientists react: 2014 confirmed as hottest year on record

  • 16 Jan 2015, 17:13
  • Carbon Brief staff

NASA and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have confirmed 2014 was the warmest year since records began in 1880. 

The 10 warmest years in the instrumental record, with the exception of 1998, have now occurred since 2000.

Carbon Brief rounds up the reaction from scientists…

Prof Jonathan Overpeck, co-director of the University of Arizona's Institute of the Environment,  said in USA Today:

"Humans are literally cooking their planet...It just shows that human emissions of greenhouse gases, mainly from the burning of fossil fuels, are taking over the Earth's climate system. The data are clear. The Earth is warming and humans are causing the bulk of this warming."

Overpeck said in the Huffington post:

"Perhaps more important than the global temperature story are the impacts of record regional heat. In places like California, the Southwest U.S. more generally, Australia and parts of Brazil, record heat is exacerbating drought and leading to more stress on our water supplies and forests."

"With continued global warming, we're going to see more and more of these unprecedented regional conditions, and with them will come more and more costs to humans and the things they value. 2014 shows that humans are indeed cooking their planet as they continue to combust fossil fuels."

Dr Radley Horton, a scientist from Columbia University, said in USA Today:

"What we have known for decades is that increasing greenhouse gas concentrations - due to human activities - have stacked the deck dramatically towards more record warm years, and fewer record cold years."

Prof Stefan Rahmstorf, head of earth system analysis at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany, said in the New York Times:

"Obviously, a single year, even if it is a record, cannot tell us much about climate trends. However, the fact that the warmest years on record are 2014, 2010 and 2005 clearly indicates that global warming has not 'stopped in 1998', as some like to falsely claim."

Dr Gavin Schmidt, director of Nasa's Goddard Institute of Space Studies, said in the New York Times:

"Why do we keep getting so many record-warm years? It's because the planet is warming. The basic issue is the long-term trend, and it is not going away."

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Explainer: How do scientists measure global temperature?

  • 16 Jan 2015, 11:40
  • Roz Pidcock

Every year around this time, there's a flurry of activity in the world's major meteorological agencies as they prepare to release official global temperature figures for the previous year.

This year, there's particular interest as it looks likely 2014 will be the hottest year on record.

First out the blocks with the official data was the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). Earlier this month, it confirmed 2014 had  taken the top spot with global temperatures 0.27 degrees Celsius above the long-term average. Today, it's the turn of NASA and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, with the UK Met Office following suit next week.

Why so many records? While global temperature is a simple enough idea, measuring it is harder than you might think. We take a look at what goes into taking Earth's temperature.

The basics

To get a complete picture of Earth's temperature, scientists combine measurements from the air above land and the ocean surface collected by ships, buoys and sometimes satellites, too.

The temperature at each land and ocean station is compared daily to what is 'normal' for that location and time, typically the long-term average over a 30-year period. The differences are called an 'anomalies' and they help scientists evaluate how temperature is changing over time.

A 'positive' anomaly means the temperature is warmer than the long-term average, a 'negative' anomaly means it's cooler.

Daily anomalies are averaged together over a whole month. These are, in turn, used to work out temperature anomalies from season-to-season and year-to-year.

 

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25 inspirational texts about climate change

  • 25 Dec 2014, 12:10
  • Simon Evans

Did Santa bring any of these this Christmas?

We asked 25 thinkers, writers and journalists a simple question: What books or readings inspired you to get involved in climate change-related work?

We were expecting to get back a list of books - and we did. But we also got some interesting insights into why people work on this issue, why they started, and why they carry on.

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